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Models of Change Reform Revolution and Military Rules

Models of Change Reform Revolution and Military Rules


you are watching th TV from California
State University Dominguez Hills okay and this presentation we’re gonna take a
look at Latin America as it modernizes in the 20th century and kind of take a
look at some of the foundations for the resistance that’s going to occur later
on and as what is known as the pink tide so a Latin American moved towards a
modern state we’ll take a look at the late 19th and 20th centuries numerous
changes are going to occur but however the changes are not as significant as
the major institutions of the past continue undisturbed as you will see
from the previous presentation the landed aristocracy learn to maintain
control there will still be attitudes towards labour that will be a negative
and the political apparatus will not essentially change to favor the majority
the center of political social and economic life changes though from the
Hacienda or the plantation to the city a political stability does replace chaos
with the military become a very powerful force in Latin America the rural
aristocracy is still in control as the states will get bigger in the 20th
century but the rural aristocracy has to make room for a rising industrial and a
merchant class the wealthiest are still white the wealthiest are still
politically powerful a dependency is going to be accelerated rather than
diminished because foreign loans are going to increase investments
investments I mean investments and inventions and technology and
technicians and ideology is going to be imported social inequality racism
privilege dependency and paternalistic rule is going to chart a course in Latin
America towards conflict but there are some developments in the twentieth
centuries that are important to understand the city becomes the center
of government and industry there’s a correlation between your class status
and your participation in the modernization process the educational
and career opportunities are located in the city
which can inspire upward mobility education is a privilege for the wealthy
there’s gonna be a huge percentage of illiteracy in Latin America this is
gonna be the perpetuation of things European the perpetuation of things
American not Latin or not Latin American so when we take a look at the elites the
elites can be defined as those groups which hold the reins of power they
control the nation’s political and economic destiny
they manipulate the nation’s institutions to serve their own
interests they traditionally have turned to Europe and the u.s. for models of
economic and social development and cultural development they’re composed
primarily of Latin Americans of white European heritage now recent changes
have affected the constituency of the elite class there’s the inclusion of the
military in the elite class there’s the exclusion of the church and this
reflects the changing role of each as a key institution in Latin America today
but there’s the rise of the middle sector and the middle sector began to
take form in the latter half of the 19th century when national income and
national technology was on the rise it consists largely of government
bureaucrats shop owners of business clerical workers and those in the
liberal professions doctors lawyers teachers they have an above-average
education they have steady employment they are internationally oriented and
there’s a large percentage of foreign immigrants they congregate in the cities
and their political influence far out reaches their actual numbers their hope
for social mobility rests primarily on the nation’s acceptance and
implementation of the principles of modernization they are a consumer
society whose preferences for their own economic improvement they want improved
extended expanded education they want rapid industrialization and
modernization and they will use the government to foment change initially
they will seek political reform and at times social and economic reforms but in
the last the latter part of the 20th century the middle class is going to
align itself with the most conservative element
support they will support military regimes and Elite oriented governments
they will fear widespread change they will fear mass political movements and
they will fear the emergence of what is known as a folk culture in the
countryside and like the elites the middle class will emulate foreign models
they will seek stability and they will look upon foreign investments as a
positive influence then there is the rise of the urban and rural proletariat
the rural working classes they remain oppressed by the internal structures of
the economy they have been cut off from the decision-making process they have
little input into the economy and the national institutions which direct their
lives the rural and urban sectors the workers they are crucial participants in
an economy which requires their labor yet they remain unserved by the economy
and institutions which they help maintain so they are marginalised from
the power base they realize that the institutions did not serve them but they
see very little that they could do to alter what alter them outside of violent
confrontation they organize unions to protect their interests they always seek
change and they are always challenging the wealthy they cooperate with
discontented middle groups to get modest changes however once the middle sectors
obtain what they want the middle sectors usually abandon the working class and
the align with the elite which brings us to the military and its role the
military in Latin America is a very expensive institution where large
percentages of the national budgets are allocated they make economic decisions
for the of the countries which determines the extent of growth and
development in their countries but the military never acts alone they are
associated with the maintenance of the status quo they are on the armed agent
of the middle and upper classes and they make no effort to alter the land
structures which is the land at oligarchy which is the ones that are in
control they provide favors to foreign investors they torture political
prisoners and they eliminate political position so they always facilitate they
always try to stop or the the military always fails to generate mass support so
let’s talk about our reform reform means a gradual change or modification of
established economic political or social structures now most middle groups and
working classes desire reform they want what is reform all about expanded
education a restriction of foreign control they want to institute welfare
and labor programs so reforms basically favor the urban elements but they never
extend to the countryside landowners and rural socio-economic structures are
never directly challenged in the 20th century this is primarily because of the
middle sectors fear of landowners power their preoccupation with the city
intermarriage with land owning families or business connections are constantly
happening and there’s always a desire by the middle classes to acquire land for
themselves ok let’s talk about nationalism and nationalism is a group
consciousness that attributes great value to the nation state to which
loyalty is pledged members of a nation pledge unity independent sovereignty to
their country and most everybody desires modernization and economic independence
so in the early 20th century a lot of nations went through what is known as a
cultural nationalism they sought their indigenous roots of national culture to
make an attachment to the land and they were influenced by the interior the
hinterlands and the frontier then when the Great Depression occurred that hit
worldwide an economic nationalism was created the depression creates crisis
and countries and the governments have to step in to guide the nation’s economy
so this was where there was a promotion in Latin America of industrialization to
diversify the economy and the control of their own resources especially oil tin
and copper and after World War Two to the present latin america has gone
through models of devel as greater numbers are exposed to the
benefits of modern society change has to take place the old institutions of the
past must be replaced by new ones so changes occur in economic nationalism
where the political left increases their influence in government and instead of
criticism and instead criticism of foreign policies become important
foreign economic institutions of the US at many times in Latin America has has
become the hated enemy and naturally because the United States a through Wall
Street controls the economies through investment and Wall Street tends to
preserve the status quo in Latin America so there’s many different models of
change economic development is going to occur after World War Two in full swing
governments are going to attempt to control their natural resources there’s
going to be limitations that are going to be imposed on foreign capital there’s
going to be increased industrialization and there’s gonna be trade with all
nations however with regards to modernization
and nationalism that seldom met development the elite in the middle
sectors benefited at the expense of the masses landowners did not relinquish
their estates products were still geared towards the export economy’s debt
peonage was still common even where land was
redistributed the people in the countryside were deprived of necessary
services health education housing and equipment and credit also most of the
land was marginal that was distributed lands that had never been occupied were
a great distance from the markets and soil was poor no water was available and
so in Latin America right after World War Two we’re going to see a rural to
urban migration the cities supposedly offered a better life for peasants for
the countryside but industrialization was concentrated in the cities the
depression in world war ii caused this to grow very fast however foreign
investment was controlled the nature of the industry a new type of dependency in
which Latin America relied on foreign investment technology technicians and
markets so it funneled the wealth to those in control
the elites in the aspiring middle sectors created ties between the
landowner and the industrialist to expedite the export economy so with
industrialization came the rise of this working class of the working classes
they form coalition’s to check elite power they their standard of living rose
but it was very limited they were harnessed politically to keep them in
control and they were brutally suppressed when they agitated for change
especially striking for better wages but urbanization the higher in society the
more steadier employment the better access to health care education etc in
this experience but the rural the countryside people who were coming from
the countryside into the cities were forced to live in slums
there’s no employment for them there was no education provided there was poor
sanitation in healthcare so the reforms only went to the middle class and this
is why in Latin America you can see tremendous poverty everywhere
modernization called for the building of freeways these magnificent buildings
these parks these stadiums these tunnels but no public services for the poor so
many times in that in America you can see these fancy fancy buildings these
fancy modernized cities but in the midst of tremendous poverty democracy this is
a call for free elections and the peaceful transition of public office the
political process accommodated itself nicely to the interests of the middle
class without having harming the elites the role of women increases what they
are still doubly exploited first as women a second as workers and the role
of the church still favors the status quo but there has been a steady change
towards favoring the poor they do try to help the poor organize and it begins in
the 1960s with what is known as the theology of liberation
so there’s weaknesses with regards to democracy in Latin America there’s
tremendous unemployment underemployment there’s hunger illiteracy the system
favors the elite middle classes not the majority there’s a democratic ideology
is imported and used for the benefit of the few there’s no social services that
are available to the poor the national resources are spent
on luxuries arms highways televisions cars consumer items but not for the
benefit of the people and so all of this is preparing you for the text a book and
the introduction to 21st century socialism you are watching th TV from
California State University Dominguez Hills


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